Women in political leadership
Gender parity is fundamental to whether and how economies and societies thrive. Ensuring the full development and appropriate deployment of half of the world’s total talent pool has a vast bearing on the growth, competitiveness and future-readiness of economies and businesses worldwide. The Global Gender Gap Report benchmarks 144 countries on their progress towards gender parity across four thematic dimensions: Economic Participation and Opportunity, Educational Attainment, Health and Survival, and Political Empowerment.
FYI: Australia ranks 35th overall but 48th in terms of political empowerment of women.
EY’s Worldwide Women Public Sector Leaders Index charts the representation of women in public sector leadership positions across G20 countries. Gives rise to a conversation about the policies, measures and role models that are needed to promote and retain the female talent that abounds in the public sector.
Electoral quotas for women: an international overview
Dr Joy McCann
With less than one in five parliamentarians across the world being women, legal or voluntary electoral gender quotas are used in more than half of the world’s countries as the most effective mechanism for increasing women’s political representation. Electoral quotas have gained international support and have proven to be effective in ‘fast-tracking’ women’s political representation to produce equality of results, not just equality of opportunity.
Quotas have continuing positive effects on women’s political representation at least one cycle after they are withdrawn.
Sonia A. Palmieri
Explores how the Australian Parliament has fared over the past 20 years in gender mainstreaming. It develops a framework for gender mainstreaming in parliaments and applies that to the Australian context.
2. Australia and Asia Pacific
The polarising effect of female leaders: Interest in politics and perceived leadership capability after a reminder of Australia’s first female prime minister.
Dr Christopher Hunt, Dr Karen Gonsalkorale and Dr Lisa Zadro
(2015) European Journal of Social Psychology, 44, 723-729.
The study assessed 167 Australian undergraduate students on a measure of conformity to gender norms. They then either read statements about generic difficulties experienced by leaders or the gender based difficulties experienced by Gillard before completing a questionnaire on their attitudes to leadership and certain occupations. For male participants, those with high conformity to masculine norms showed a greater belief in their own leadership capabilities after reading about Gillard’s gender- based difficulties than when reading about generic difficulties, while low conforming men showed the opposite pattern. “This suggests that Gillard’s example provoked a defensive reporting of leadership capability consistent with research showing that women who succeed in traditionally male domains are often perceived to be threatening,”. Next phase of research is to see if these findings were specific to politics or whether the same findings would apply in other professions.
Australian Electoral Commission document examining electoral milestones for Australian women.
Seizing the initiative: Australian leaders in politics, workplaces and the community
Seizing the Initiative collates research about how women in Australia in the twentieth century have negotiated leadership not only in formal politics and political lobby groups, but also at work, in business, in communities and in religious and cultural arenas.
This paper analyses the press’ treatment of the first female MPs, members of cabinet and government leaders in the States, Territories and the Commonwealth.
More Women Can Run: Gender and Pathways to the State Legislatures (2013)
Susan Carroll and Kira Sanbonmatsu
Analyses nationwide surveys of state legislators conducted by CAWP and challenges assumptions of a single model of candidate emergence with a relationally embedded model of candidacy. It reorients research on women’s election to office and offers strategies for political practitioners concerned about women’s political equality.
Tyler G. Okimoto and Victoria L Brescoll
When female politicians are perceived to be power-seeking, voters react negatively with feelings of moral outrage.
Sonia Bhalotra, Irma Clots-Figueras and Lakshmi Iyer
Women’s electoral success leads to an increase in female candidacy in subsequent elections.
Lori Beaman, Raghabendra Chattopadhyay, Esther Duflo, Rohini Pande and Petia Topalova
Exposure to women leaders decreases gender bias and improves women’s future electoral prospects.
4. The EU
Power and gender (not politics specific)
Victoria L Brescoll, Erica Dawson and Eric Luis Uhlmann
Men who are employed in jobs that are strongly associated with women, and vice versa, are more strongly penalized for making mistakes than those in positions associated with their own gender.
Victoria L Brescoll
Being in a position of power in a group increases the volubility of men, but not the volubility of women.